Polymer gel is also referred to as hydrogel. For industry chain analysis, the report covers four-Nitrostyrene upstream raw components, gear, downstream client survey, marketing channels, industry improvement trend and proposals, which much more particularly contain useful information on 4-Nitrostyrene essential applications and consumption, important regions and consumption, key international distributors , main raw materials suppliers and speak to info, main manufacturing gear suppliers and make contact with data, key suppliers and contact Information, crucial customers and contact data, and supply chain relationship analysis. The obstacles of recycling plastic can be overcome by utilizing an elaborate monomer recycling process wherein the polymer undergoes an inverse polymer reaction of what was used to manufacture it. The end product of this procedure is a mix of chemicals that type the original polymer, which is further purified and synthesized to form a new polymer of the exact same type. Plastic bottles (the kind that had been utilized for some type of customer product) are the feedstock for what is known as post-customer recycled polyester”. It also contributes roughly 16% to international production of dye intermediaries and dyestuff. Our polymer scientists apply the most appropriate chemical tests to get the information you want to comprehend your product’s good quality and efficiency. International Sourcing enables chemical industries around the globe to acquire their chemical and polymer supplies from chemical companies in India, and save heavily on the cost of setting up a separate manufacturing unit of their personal. Thermoplastics, such as acrylic, nylons, polyethylene, and polyvinyl chloride, are linear-chain molecules. Some of the main areas of operations for these specialists are pharmaceutical, food processing and petrochemical industries. Chemical organizations in India are one of the least expensive suppliers of chemical compounds and polymers for the chemical market across the globe. Its present registered capital is 180 million Baht and its objectives are to manufacture and distribute latex emulsion and latex polymer for use in numerous industries, such as paint and coating, printing ink and publishing, adhesive, paper, synthetic material to be utilized as raw material in production of textiles and garment and and so on. These polymers supply functionality attributes that add worth to a customer’s organization and across the value chain for sustained growth. Extremely branched polymers are amorphous and the molecules in the strong interact randomly. Right here, we express our thanks for the support and help from four-Fluoro Biphenyl sector chain associated technical authorities and advertising and marketing engineers for the duration of analysis team’s survey and interviews. The mark is not applied directly to goods, but may possibly be employed by the production web site (for instance, on its letterhead and official documents). The principal development sector in the Indian chemical sector is pesticides, petrochemicals, specialty chemical substances, pharmaceuticals, and Chlor alkali. We have already posted blogs about plastics (particularly recycled plastics) final year (on 4.28.ten, 5.05.ten and 5.12.ten) so you know exactly where we stand on the use of plastics in fabrics. Global sourcing sometimes intends to take benefit of global efficiencies in the delivery of a product or service. The global polymer concrete market is segmented by class, kind of polymer, application, end-use industry, and regions. For technical data and manufacturing plants evaluation, the report analyzes four-Nitrostyrene top suppliers on capacity, industrial production date, manufacturing plants distribution, R&D status, technologies sources, and raw components sources. LOTTE Chemical’s high competitiveness is achieved by diversification of raw supplies and expansion of international production bases. Worldwide Benzyl Bromide Market 2015 Deep Market place Investigation Report is a skilled and deep investigation report in this field. Upjohn acquired the polymer-chemical compounds company in 1963. There are many other Chemical organizations in India that source chemicals and polymers internationally. The manufacturing method requires workers and our environment to be exposed to some or all of the chemical substances made for the duration of the manufacturing approach. People have learned how to make composites also: the industries which make higher-functionality glass, carbon, or Kevlar-fibre reinforced polymers (GFRP, CFRP, KFRP) enjoy a faster growth price (more than 10% per year) than virtually any other branch of components production.
They persist and accumulate in our society as their production exceeds their chemical degradation rate. Proper incineration burns the material and the by-goods of the initial burning and also takes care of air and solid emissions to insure public security. DTU Chemical Engineering’s principal activities lie within the regions of item style, method design and production in the chemical, biotechnological, pharmaceutical, food technological and energy technological industries. This is to inform you that Ms. Naz Khan has tendered her resignation as a Director on the Board of Engro Polymer & Chemical compounds, w.e.f November 7,2016. Their water treatment chemical compounds are known for decreasing and treating any troubles that arise in the industrial cooling systems. I believe we need to have an alternative, and I think the government should have more regulations with regards to which chemical substances can be used in sector. Some plastics are stretched in processing to hold their shape, such as soft drink bottles. Tiny water and dye molecules can enter the fiber easily, but the massive molecules of stain-resistant chemical substances have much more difficulty penetrating the nylon. Properly, in a nutshell, the production of nylon includes the precursors benzene (a known human carcinogen) and hydrogen cyanide gas (very poisonous) the manufacturing method releases VOCs, nitrogen oxides and ammonia. Reference: “Generating or Submitting the prior confirmation notification type for polymers related to Report 3, paragraph (1), item (vi) of the Act” published on March 25, 2010 by the Minister of Overall health, Labour and Welfare, the Minister of Economy, Trade and Industry and the Minister of the Environment. It is now irresponsible to add far more phathalates to the products by placing the milk products in plastic containers that add A lot more EDC’s. For overview analysis, the report introduces four-Fluoro Biphenyl simple details which includes definition, classification, application, sector chain structure, industry overview, policy analysis, and news analysis, and so on. Engro Polymer and Chemical substances Limited was incorporated in Pakistan in 1997 under the now repealed Organizations Ordinance, 1984. The manufacture of items from polymers needs a expertise and understanding of a broad variety of principles and technologies. These are very essential in numerous applications of polymers for films and membranes. If you are soon after fundamental details on plastic materials, this is the location to uncover it. Here you are going to understand the definition and properties of polymers, another name for plastics. For technical information and manufacturing plants analysis, the report analyzes 4-Fluoro Biphenyl top suppliers on capacity, commercial production date, manufacturing plants distribution, R&D status, technologies sources, and raw materials sources. Customers can acquire these Polymer Chemicals from us at industrial top rate. These chemicals are a solution of acrylamide. The second theory is that the polymer interacts with the components of the Portland cement hydration merchandise and types new complexes. Polymer Valley Chemicals maintains corporate offices, sales, and warehousing in Akron, Ohio and owns and operates two production & warehousing facilities in Macon, Georgia. Cross-linked polymers: Wide-meshed cross-linked polymers are elastomers and can not be molten (as opposed to thermoplastics ) heating cross-linked polymers only leads to decomposition Thermoplastic elastomers , on the other hand, are reversibly “physically crosslinked” and can be molten. Recycled polyester, also known as rPET, is now accepted as a sustainable” solution in the textile market place. Crucial industry participants, like Amcor Ltd., Mondi Plc, Apex Packaging, Sealed Air Corporation, Coveris Holdings S.A., and DS Smith Plc, are involved in the manufacture, fabrication, and distribution of plastic packaging merchandise across the globe. For overview evaluation, the report introduces Benzyl Bromide basic information such as definition, classification, application, business chain structure, industry overview, policy evaluation, and news evaluation, etc. On the basis of the application, the international polymer concrete industry is segmented into asphalt pavement, developing and maintenance, industrial tanks & containments, prefabricated items for drainage systems, marine operates, and other people. We use a number of test strategies to track efficiency during polymer chemical resistance testing, including mechanical strength and physical properties.
BULWARK flow G is a concentrated, ready to use aqueous solution of organic polymers with high plasticizing effect. This would be quite labor intensive and would call for a lot of monitoring, all of which adds to the cost of production – and don’t overlook, recycled polyester now is fashion’s darling due to the fact it really is so inexpensive, so these manufacturer’s wouldn’t be anticipated to improve expenses. It protects ferrous and non-ferrous materials from corrosive chemical substances. Some of the essential players in the international polymer concrete industry are Sika AG (Switzerland), MAPEI Corporation (Italy), Fosroc Inc. Dumps specified quantity of chemical substances, such as polymer, salt, and potassium permanganate into chemical feeders. Table six Strategies of processing plastics. This is to inform you that Mr. Omar Yaqoob Sheikh has tendered his resignation as a Director on the Board of Engro Polymer & Chemical substances, w.e.f October 8,2016. Some of the key players in the global polymer concrete market are Sika AG (Switzerland), MAPEI Corporation (Italy), Fosroc. More than the final 70 years, synthetic polymers have been invented, frequently mimicking nature and they are now manufactured in millions of tonnes a year and are one of the most essential supplies we use. When a polymer is dispersed or dissolved in a liquid, such as in industrial merchandise like paints and glues, the chemical properties and molecular interactions influence how the resolution flows and can even lead to self-assembly of the polymer into complicated structures. Perfluorochemicals (PFC’s) are the only chemical compounds capable of repelling water, oil and other liquids that cause stains. These chains are THERMOPLASTIC polymers and are also known as LINEAR polymers. Recycled plastics can be blended with virgin plastic (plastic that has not been processed prior to) without sacrificing properties in several applications. Metallic stearates and amide waxes are generally utilized in the extrusion and injection of plastic polymers to manage the viscosity in the course of the procedure and give the required mechanical properties. Cradle to Cradle and GreenGuard can expense quite a bit, so when you appear on the net internet sites to find which items have these certifications, you see mainly big, effectively established businesses which can afford to absorb the certification costs. Synthetic polymers could consist of each crystalline and amorphous regions the degree of crystallinity could be expressed in terms of a weight fraction or volume fraction of crystalline material. Rigid polyurethane foam is 1 of the most efficient sensible thermal insulation components, utilised in applications ranging from buildings to the modest domestic refrigerator. I have lengthy been concerned about the rampant acceptance of recycled polyester as a green choice when no mention has been created of processing chemical substances, water therapy or workers rights, so we welcome this new GRS certification, which makes it possible for us to be a lot more conscious of what we’re really purchasing when we try to do good”. Akzo Nobel, based in the Netherlands, serves customers all through the planet with healthcare products, coatings and chemical substances. That distinction is what ensures that this material is powerful adequate to withstand abrasion and effect far better than reduced level poly items. UAC Advance Polymer & Chemicals Co., Ltd. Phthalates are capable to leach out of these items as they are not bonded to the plastic. At Polymer Options Group, we strive to make our customers’ items the best they can be. Inside the walls of every PSG business we nurture a commitment to customer-centric innovation that demands deep knowledge of the markets we serve. For international and China market analysis, the report analyzes four-Nitrostyrene markets in China and other nations or regions (such as US, Europe, Japan, and so forth) by presenting study on global goods of diverse varieties and applications, developments and trends of industry, technology, competitive landscape, and leading suppliers’ and countries’ 2009-2014 capacity, production, price, cost, profit, production value, and gross margin. If bubbling is observed, instantly wipe it as this the usual chemical reaction if the material is a plastic. Linking numerous strips of building paper collectively to make paper garlands or hooking collectively hundreds of paper clips to kind chains, or stringing beads assists visualize polymers. Co-polymers are very useful as they have the properties of the constituent polymers and therefore can be produced for certain purposes.
Some polymers float in water even though others sink. If you are a skilled in a salon, it is likely that you may possibly endure from overexposure to all or any of these chemical compounds and may possibly develop a reaction soon after a period of time. Polymers can be processed in various methods. MMA, the crucial raw material used for the production of PMMA, is an unsaturated ester broadly utilized to make polymers for a wide range of industrial and consumer applications, which includes surface coatings, injection molding and extrusion, and a variety of transparent influence-resistant plastic sheets. The properties of numerous plastics can be modified by varying their formulation. From the raw material to the production process to the labour cost, nothing at all is low cost in this business. This tends to make them appropriate for a very big variety of applications: they’ve been used for over 50 years in a wide range of goods. Though researchers have carried out a quantity of research on the overall health risks of individual materials, this scattershot approach can’t offer a comprehensive image of the hazards—quantitative data on what materials, in what concentrations, have an effect on the physique over what timescales. The majority of PET polymer capacity, production, and consumption is now situated in Asia. ADC Monomers are utilised in the optical industry for the production of lenses. The polymer components are extremely sturdy, and they will not break, crack, or crumble as time moves on. An amorphous arrangement of molecules has no lengthy-range order or type in which the polymer chains arrange themselves. Processing time is about 30 minutes for a batch of polymer stamps. Our professionals bring you insight into your material’s chemical composition and ‘fingerprint’, helping you to recognize degradation and overall performance over the products lifetime: invaluable for making sure that the material is the optimum selection. The common has strict environmental processing criteria in spot in addition to percentage content of recycled product – it consists of wastewater therapy as well as chemical use that is based on the Worldwide Organic Textile Regular (GOTS) and the Oeko-Tex 100. International SAP Marketplace 2015-2019, has been prepared primarily based on an in-depth market analysis with inputs from market experts. Table 5 Additives employed to boost the properties of plastics. Impart specially needed properties to the plastic for the manufacturing process or for end-use. Some of the key players operating in the global polymer concrete industry are Sika AG (Switzerland), MAPEI Corporation (Italy), Fosroc. There exist a vast application of petrochemical merchandise developed from polymers, synthetic fibers, polymers, and fiber intermediaries in the industrial and domestic sectors. Yet another product that we see often in the vehicle care item sector is Silicone fluid, which is a short chain polymer known as polydimethyl siloxane. The polymer modified concrete was the biggest segment in the worldwide polymer concrete market place by class in 2017 and is expected to show increasing demand in the course of the forecast period 2018-2023 owing to its growing applications in building & upkeep, asphalt pavements, marine applications, industrial tanks & containment, and other industrial & industrial and infrastructural projects. Like tensile strength, this is very relevant in polymer applications involving the physical properties of polymers, such as rubber bands. Our polymer chemical laboratories utilise a wide variety of methods including spectroscopy, microscopy and chromatography, with a combined expertise base which includes approach development and validation, and with market standard test techniques to make certain a material meets compliance requirements. The organizations operating in the chemical business consists of two major units modest-scale and huge units (including MNCs). The water utilized is typically returned to our ecosystem without treatment – meaning that the wastewater which is returned to our streams contains all of the approach chemical compounds employed during milling. Some plastics can be composted either since of specific additives or due to the fact of the building of the polymers. Plastics are used to line landfills so that leachate is captured and groundwater is not polluted. As the world’s leading supplier of renewable oils, we have the capacity to enable the chemical sector to provide their customers with chemical compounds and plastics created in large scale from renewable raw components. Great Lakes Chemical Corporation (NYSE: GLK) is the world’s leading producer of numerous specialty chemical compounds for such applications as flame retardants, polymer stabilizers, fire extinguishers, water remedy, as effectively as a increasing line of efficiency and fine chemical substances for the life science business.
Our inventory of study reports caters to different industry verticals such as Healthcare and Chemical substances, Components. The microstructure determines the possibility for the polymer to form phases with diverse arrangements, for example even though crystallization , the glass transition or microphase separation 25 These characteristics play a key part in figuring out the physical and chemical properties of a polymer, for example its mechanical properties and interaction with other chemical substances and solvents. We are your 1 quit shop – supporting the wants of our specialist business sectors, we provide merchandise such as additives, minerals, colourants, polymers & textile processing chemical substances. By combining proprietary catalyst and process technologies, we have introduced a new line of items that deliver Extreme Functionality for a assortment of applications. LOTTE Chemical has a vertically integrated, effective production structure for high worth-added items employed in building, residence appliance, and textile industries. Polymer roofing shingles are also fantastic to use because they expense much less funds than natural components. In the globe of nanoscience, ordinary supplies display special properties at the nanoscale. Many condensation polymeriztion reactions, in which 1 or two monomers are the starting components, also want catalysts. Right here, we express our thanks for the support and help from Benzyl Bromide market chain related technical specialists and advertising engineers during investigation team’s survey and interviews. Functionality polymers are perfect for a variety of applications. Just as quenching can make amorphous arrangements, processing can handle the degree of crystallinity for those polymers that are able to crystallize. They assumed that this would be quite labor intensive and would require a lot of monitoring (all of which adds to the price of production – and never forget, recycled polyester now is fashion’s darling because it really is so inexpensive!). When the building blocks can be produced more economically from renewable components than from fossil fuels, either old plastics locate new raw components or new plastics are introduced. The Global Polymer Gel Market place segmented on the basis of Application, and Area. But creating block repeat units can often be created from renewable materials such as polylactic acid from corn or cellulosics from cotton linters. Rubber tree latex and cellulose have been utilised as raw material to make manufactured polymeric rubber and plastics. When a polymer is applied as a coating, the chemical properties will influence the adhesion of the coating and how it interacts with external supplies, such as superhydrophobic polymer coatings major to water resistance. If you are in search of chemical firms in India that offer oil field specialty chemical substances, go to This is a organization that focuses on treating crude oil and water in an effective and cost-effective manner. A stroll by means of your house will reinforce this idea, as you take into account all the appliances, cords, electrical outlets and wiring that are made or covered with polymeric components. Sintering is the procedure that is conducted to fuse the constituent components of iron ore to make a single porous mass that can be utilised in a blast furnace. Polymer Valley Chemicals ships throughout North America and internationally. Based on their chemical structures, polymers may be either semi-crystalline or amorphous. Adverse production has been simplified with the introduction of water based unfavorable technology, photographic chemical substances for generating negatives are now a factor of the past. Cradle to Cradle () : primarily it certifies that the item makes use of environmentally protected and healthy components – even so the list of what is deemed secure is proprietary so we have to take their word for it. In other words: they’re not transparent. For market chain analysis, the report covers Benzyl Bromide upstream raw materials, gear, downstream client survey, advertising channels, industry improvement trend and proposals, which much more specifically include worthwhile info on Benzyl Bromide essential applications and consumption, essential regions and consumption, crucial international distributors , main raw components suppliers and speak to information, key manufacturing gear suppliers and speak to data, key suppliers and get in touch with Info, key customers and speak to info, and supply chain relationship evaluation.
Commercial, industrial, and infrastructural projects are collectively accounted for high demand for polymer concrete in 2017 and are expected to drive the global polymer concrete market place more than the forecast period. Other chemical substances which cause allergies are preservatives like formaldehyde present in nail care products, phenylenediamine identified in hair dyes, thimerosal and so on. Collectively, these industries produce thousands of chemical items and byproducts which range from petrochemicals to cosmetics and also plastic to toiletries. Their chemical properties are comparable to those of basic molecules. Molecular ions have been the only prominent ions created in the FD mode of evaluation for the series of representative polymer chemical substances discussed in this paper. In the final decade, the food market has been thriving as preservatives let the industries to preserve their products on the shelf for longer and permits them to import meals from various parts of the planet in the kind of canned foods and ready-to-consume frozen foods. The Company’s line of company includes the manufacturing of synthetic resins, plastics materials, and nonvulcanizable elastomers. The companies say their new reformulated products are entirely protected – and other groups such as the Environmental Working Group, query this assumption. As a true group of teams the Polymer Options Group firms strive to deliver client-centric solutions that increase our customers’ goods, processes and functionality. The International Nylon six Filament Yarn Marketplace size is anticipated to attain USD 33.58 billion by 2025, according to a new report by Grand View Analysis, Inc., progressing at a CAGR of 7.7% in the course of the forecast period. In summary, field desorption mass spectroscopy can in a lot of situations provide molecular weight and structural information for polymer chemical substances heretofore not obtainable by any analytical strategy. It performs by leaching chemicals that kill the fouling just before it has time to adhere to the hull. Even although plastic recycling appears to fall far quick of its guarantee, recycled polyester, also named rPET, is now accepted as a sustainable” solution in the textile market, because it is a message that can be simply understood by buyers – and polyester is significantly less costly than organic fibers. Epoxy held a leading 30% share in the worldwide polymer concrete market place in 2017 and is likely to remain the major contributor over the forecast period, followed by polyester. The international SAP industry can be segmented into four based of application: Child diapers, adult incontinence goods, feminine hygiene goods, and other people. In the latter case, escalating the polymer chain length 10-fold would enhance the viscosity over 1000 occasions. The PET polymer producer landscape is fragmented, with hundreds of producers globally, but some market place participants span the complete polyester value chain from the production of upstream monomers (ethylene oxide, ethylene glycol, purified terephthalic acid, or dimethyl terephthalate) all the way to the production of polyester fibers and strong-state resins. These polymers are consumed in the production of electrical insulations, coal boilers, packaging, and gaskets. 59 The mobility of the chain can further alter if the molecules of plasticizer give rise to hydrogen bonding formation. In conclusion, it is a deep investigation report on global 4-Nitrostyrene sector. These industries require powerful and reliable hoses and tubing to transfer very caustic and corrosive chemical compounds. Escalating use of PMMA and PVC, which utilizes MMA as a raw material, in numerous finish-use industries is propelling industry development. Synthetic paper is recyclable and wastes linked to the production are collected by a recycling firm and processed as raw supplies for other plastics. Most frequently, the constantly linked backbone of a polymer used for the preparation of plastics consists mostly of carbon atoms. Polymers containing amide or carbonyl groups can form hydrogen bonds in between adjacent chains the partially positively charged hydrogen atoms in N-H groups of one chain are strongly attracted to the partially negatively charged oxygen atoms in C= groups on yet another. Our inventory of research reports caters to different sector verticals such as Healthcare, Data and Communication Technologies (ICT), Technologies and Media, Chemical compounds, Supplies, Energy, Heavy Industry, and so forth. Essential industry players contain Saudi Arabian Amiantit Firm, Enduro Composites, Inc., Ma’s Group Inc., FIMA Group Ltd., Sumitomo Seika Chemical compounds Co., Ltd, Nippon Shokubai Co., Ltd., LG Chemical substances Ltd., Evonik Industries, BASF Corporation, Dow Chemicals and Chemxtex Speciality Limited.
At the doctoral level, the varied specialization possibilities consist of Heat Transfer, Energy management, Biochemical Engineering, Separation Processes, Pulp and Paper, Fluid Mechanics, Polymer science, and Reaction Engineering. Cattle concentrate these chemical substances by bioaccummulation because EDC’s from plastics are ubiquitous in water and most animal meals sources. In addition, the common includes environmental processing criteria and strick raw material specification (water remedy and chemical use is primarily based on GOTS and Oeko-Tex 100) and social responsibility is incorporated – which ensures workers health and security and upholds workers rights in accordance with International Labor Organisation (ILO) criteria. The Global Antimony market can be divided on the basis of Applications into the following segments: Fire Retarding Agent, Lead Batteries, Alloy-strengthening Agent, Catalyst, Ceramics, and Others. Polymers can be utilized for a lot of devices combining exclusive optical, electrical, and mechanical properties. Below, the covering of the cable is a block co-polymer of the two alkenes, giving a very challenging material with rubber-like properties. Oeko Tex one hundred is solution distinct – they do not look at processing (i.e., water treatment, workers rights, emissions, sludge), it only implies that the finished item (fabric, yarn, clothes, etc.) has limit values for chemical substances which are under the threshold limits on the Oeko Tex list, with numerous particularly prohibited. Chemicals and cleaning merchandise are important in the aircraft washing business and you need to recognize which ones can and can not be utilised on which surfaces, for corrosion protection and new higher-tech lightweight paints. Basic formulation understanding of crucial technologies in house care goods like surfactant, builder, enzymes and polymers is essential. This includes pretreatment of the cooling tower makeup, keeping the mineral solids soluble, using crystal modifiers, and the application of different cooling water polymers. Raw components and foodstuffs industries. BULWARK Chemical substances For Construction Supplies Supplier In Gujarat, Building Materials Supplier In India, Building Materials Supplier In Ahmedabad , Construction Materials In Ahmedabad, Building Materials In Gujarat, Building Components In India. All round the chemical properties of a polymer are essential elements for designing new polymeric material items. To achieve this bold objective, we’re innovating efficient methods to close power and material cycles, pushing the boundaries of what is achievable with polymers. I would strongly advise buyers to buy beverages and non-strong meals products packaged in glass rather than plastic if offered the option. Exceed XP overall performance PE polymers provide step-out mechanical efficiency and exceptional processability for a wide range of applications. Fabrics finished with PFCs have nonstick properties this household of chemical substances is employed in nearly all the stain repellant finishes on the market place today. This tends to boost the totally free power of mixing for polymer solutions and thereby creating solvation much less favorable, and thereby producing the availability of concentrated solutions of polymers far rarer than those of tiny molecules. To manage the Plant Operations, Production, QA, Projects, Streamlining Processes and Enhancing Productivity. Losses from the polymer-chemical operations last year offset income in fine and pharmaceutical chemical substances for a total division loss of $9 million, an Upjohn spokesman stated. It adds new chapters on controlled polymerization and chain conformations whilst expanding and updating material on topics such as catalysis and synthesis, viscoelasticity, rubber elasticity, glass transition, crystallization, remedy properties, thermodynamics, and light scattering. The polymer is what protects the steel from external factors causing corrosions like chemicals, water, soil and weather. LOTTE Chemical stabilized the provide of goods by way of vertical integration of raw components and merchandise, and strives to develop new items that meet the users’ wants. Plastic from soft drink and water bottles can be spun into fiber for the production of carpet or created into new meals bottles. Conductive nature, these chemicals are used in a wide variety of applications, mostly in the electronics market. This unit offers an overview of the primary types of polymers characterised by how they are made, how their structures govern their common properties and how these properties can be refined by their formulation employing a variety of additives.