Fishing rod blanks are produced of a carbon fibers composite or prepregs (= pre-impregnated) created by the chemical industry with a lengthy and costly procedure. The crucial players in the Flame Retardant Chemical compounds market place contain Akzo Nobel Polymer Chemicals LLC, Clariant AG, Martinswerk GmbH, DIC Corporation, Dover Chemical Corporation, Royal DSM NV, ICL Industrial Goods, Supresta LLC, Synalloy Corporation and The Dow Chemical Firm. Until milk companies have their goods quantatatively analysed for these EDC’s by competent independent laboratories, my powerful recommendation is to steer clear of obtain and consumption of milk and dairy goods contained in plastic. The process chemical compounds employed by the mills are employed on organic fibers just as they’re used on polyesters and conventionally created natural fibers. This report also presents Benzyl Bromide item specification, manufacturing method, and solution cost structure and so on. These are the top chemical cleaning merchandise utilised by specialist cleaners in industrial settings. SAP is employed in a wide variety of applications, such as child diapers adult incontinence goods feminine hygiene merchandise and agriculture, mining, healthcare, and associated applications. Global 4-Nitrostyrene Sector 2015 Deep Marketplace Investigation Report is a professional and deep investigation report in this field. PTFE or Teflon on the other hand, has a extremely high melting point as a polymer, and is nigh impossible to use for custom tubing by means of an extrusion process, unless particular preparations are produced in advance just before production begins. The report includes six components, dealing with: 1.) simple info 2.) the Asia Industrial Abrasives business 3.) the North American Industrial Abrasives industry four.) the European Industrial Abrasives sector five.) marketplace entry and investment feasibility and six.) the report conclusion. Increasing use of plastic packaging in widespread applications, such as food and beverages, individual care, household care, customer electronics, and building, is likely to drive sector growth more than the forecast period. Saudi Polymers Company is known across the Middle East area and even in International states for high quality production. Apart from being lightweight and versatile, nylon also facilitates larger design and style flexibility, which enables production of advanced shapes with no compromising the safety and stability of merchandise. Some bioplastics do decompose to carbon dioxide and water, nevertheless, in specially created food waste industrial composting facilities ONLY. Covestro is a world-major supplier of higher-tech polymer supplies: revolutionary, sustainable and diverse. My organization The Aircraft Wash Guys does not do the volume to afford to be in the enterprise of chemical substances, due to the fees to make them and the over regulations in the market so we can not sell you any. The sorting of polymer waste for recycling purposes might be facilitated by the use of the resin identification codes developed by the Society of the Plastics Sector to identify the variety of plastic. The Global Rubber Processing Chemical compounds Industry segmented on the basis of Item, Application, and Area. Biopolymers are the structural and functional components that comprise most of the organic matter in organisms. The microstructure of a polymer (often known as configuration) relates to the physical arrangement of monomer residues along the backbone of the chain. Optical brighteners are a broad classification of many distinct synthetic chemicals that, when applied to clothes, convert UV light wavelengths to visible light, hence generating laundered clothes seem “whiter.” Their inclusion in any formula does not enhance or have an effect on the product’s efficiency in any way they simply trick the eye. Plastic supplies identified beneath a distinct code can be mixed and recycled with other plastics of the very same code. Growth of tire and automotive sector has a direct influence on development of market place for rubber processing chemical compounds. What is also naturally missing from the Croatians’ controlled, static testing model are the temperature variations that the plastic bottled water product goes by way of to get from bottling point to the mouth of the consumer. Chemical compounds utilized for bleaching mechanical pulps which selectively destroy colouring impurities but leave the lignin and cellulose material intact. Polymers with side chains can be divided into two classes, a single (stereoregular) which has a recurring pattern in terms of stereochemistry and a single (atactic) with no typical structure.
At the doctoral level, the varied specialization possibilities contain Heat Transfer, Power management, Biochemical Engineering, Separation Processes, Pulp and Paper, Fluid Mechanics, Polymer science, and Reaction Engineering. Cattle concentrate these chemical substances by bioaccummulation because EDC’s from plastics are ubiquitous in water and most animal food sources. In addition, the common contains environmental processing criteria and strick raw material specification (water therapy and chemical use is primarily based on GOTS and Oeko-Tex 100) and social duty is incorporated – which guarantees workers health and security and upholds workers rights in accordance with International Labor Organisation (ILO) criteria. The Global Antimony industry can be divided on the basis of Applications into the following segments: Fire Retarding Agent, Lead Batteries, Alloy-strengthening Agent, Catalyst, Ceramics, and Other people. Polymers can be utilized for several devices combining special optical, electrical, and mechanical properties. Beneath, the covering of the cable is a block co-polymer of the two alkenes, providing a quite tough material with rubber-like properties. Oeko Tex 100 is solution specific – they don’t look at processing (i.e., water treatment, workers rights, emissions, sludge), it only signifies that the finished item (fabric, yarn, clothes, and so on.) has limit values for chemical substances which are under the threshold limits on the Oeko Tex list, with many especially prohibited. Chemicals and cleaning goods are crucial in the aircraft washing business and you need to comprehend which ones can and can not be used on which surfaces, for corrosion protection and new high-tech lightweight paints. Standard formulation understanding of important technologies in property care merchandise like surfactant, builder, enzymes and polymers is required. This involves pretreatment of the cooling tower makeup, maintaining the mineral solids soluble, utilizing crystal modifiers, and the application of different cooling water polymers. Raw components and foodstuffs industries. BULWARK Chemicals For Building Components Supplier In Gujarat, Building Supplies Supplier In India, Building Supplies Supplier In Ahmedabad , Building Components In Ahmedabad, Building Supplies In Gujarat, Building Materials In India. All round the chemical properties of a polymer are essential components for designing new polymeric material products. To obtain this bold goal, we’re innovating efficient techniques to close energy and material cycles, pushing the boundaries of what is attainable with polymers. I would strongly advise buyers to buy beverages and non-strong meals items packaged in glass rather than plastic if provided the selection. Exceed XP efficiency PE polymers offer step-out mechanical functionality and exceptional processability for a wide range of applications. Fabrics completed with PFCs have nonstick properties this family of chemicals is utilised in nearly all the stain repellant finishes on the marketplace these days. This tends to enhance the cost-free energy of mixing for polymer solutions and thereby producing solvation less favorable, and thereby generating the availability of concentrated solutions of polymers far rarer than those of little molecules. To manage the Plant Operations, Production, QA, Projects, Streamlining Processes and Enhancing Productivity. Losses from the polymer-chemical operations final year offset profits in fine and pharmaceutical chemical compounds for a total division loss of $9 million, an Upjohn spokesman said. It adds new chapters on controlled polymerization and chain conformations whilst expanding and updating material on subjects such as catalysis and synthesis, viscoelasticity, rubber elasticity, glass transition, crystallization, answer properties, thermodynamics, and light scattering. The polymer is what protects the steel from external elements causing corrosions like chemical substances, water, soil and climate. LOTTE Chemical stabilized the supply of products through vertical integration of raw supplies and merchandise, and strives to develop new goods that meet the users’ needs. Plastic from soft drink and water bottles can be spun into fiber for the production of carpet or created into new food bottles. Conductive nature, these chemical compounds are utilised in a wide variety of applications, mostly in the electronics sector. This unit provides an overview of the major sorts of polymers characterised by how they are created, how their structures govern their common properties and how these properties can be refined by their formulation using a range of additives.
May possibly be exposed to numerous hazards such as corrosive chemical compounds, steam, molten polymer, gear associated dangers, etc. There are a number of chemical businesses in India and all more than the world that give the essential chemical substances to aid regulate the aforementioned components. An epoxy is a material created of liquid polymer and is converted to strong polymer with appropriate mixture due to chemical reaction. The adhesives and sealants market place in China can be divided, based on end-customers, into the following segments: Construction, packaging, wood industry, fiber and leather processing, transportation, and other folks. Simply because polymer chains are so long, they have many such interchain interactions per molecule, amplifying the impact of these interactions on the polymer properties in comparison to attractions between standard molecules. For international and China market place analysis, the report analyzes 4-Fluoro Biphenyl markets in China and other nations or regions (such as US, Europe, Japan, etc) by presenting research on global products of distinct varieties and applications, developments and trends of marketplace, technology, competitive landscape, and top suppliers’ and countries’ 2009-2014 capacity, production, price, price, profit, production worth, and gross margin. Organic polymeric components such as hemp , shellac , amber , wool , silk , and organic rubber have been used for centuries. The eye-catching forces among polymer chains play a big element in figuring out the polymer’s properties. These products assist in achieving higher efficiency and higher production. For overview evaluation, the report introduces four-Nitrostyrene basic info like definition, classification, application, market chain structure, sector overview, policy evaluation, and news evaluation, etc. In conclusion, it is a deep research report on international Benzyl Bromide sector. Plastic bottles (which had been utilised for some kind of consumer item) are the feedstock for what is known as post customer recycled polyester”. Established in 2007 , Anhui Polymer Chemical substances Group has created a name for itself in the list of top suppliers of Coal Primarily based Activated Carbon ,Flocculants in China. And this isn’t taking place any as well soon: much more than 1,000 customer items containing nanomaterials are available in the U.S. and more are added each day. Moreover, a lot more emphasis on technologically advanced goods is expected to drive demand for polymer concretes from creating & maintenance activities, industrial tanks & containments, prefabricated items for drainage systems, and others for the duration of the forecast period 2018-2023. Thus, polyester (in widespread with most polymers) begins its life in our time as crude oil Crude oil is a cocktail of elements that can be separated by industrial distillation. For sector chain analysis, the report covers four-Fluoro Biphenyl upstream raw supplies, gear, downstream client survey, marketing and advertising channels, business improvement trend and proposals, which far more particularly incorporate worthwhile info on 4-Fluoro Biphenyl key applications and consumption, crucial regions and consumption, crucial global distributors , key raw materials suppliers and make contact with info, main manufacturing gear suppliers and contact info, significant suppliers and contact Info, essential customers and contact details, and supply chain relationship report also presents 4-Fluoro Biphenyl item specification, manufacturing approach, and solution cost structure and so on. Worldwide Membrane Microfiltration Market place 2014-2018, has been prepared primarily based on an in-depth marketplace analysis with inputs from business professionals. According to the general index of Industrial Production (IIP), the industry has a weightage of 14 %, which signifies the role it plays in growing the nation’s economy. The new processing techniques can impart resistance to heat as properly as to mechanical deformation, opening up new ranges of application for polymers which have already penetrated heavily into a market place which utilised to be dominated by metals. The gel is produced up of helical polymers which feature molecules which twist with each other in order to kind a nano rope. Polymer gel, a synthetic water-soluble polymer has been the key ingredient that is utilized in the formulation of a variety of of end-use industries. Refining raw cane sugar to generate these white cube of sugar on your table is an intricate process that may possibly involve hundreds of inorganic, organic, and electrolytic supplies.
This report research the worldwide Liquid-crystal Polymer industry status and forecast, categorizes the international Liquid-crystal Polymer industry size (value & volume) by manufacturers, type, application, and region. We give custom synthesis solutions ranging from R&D lab-scale projects to full-scale production for special compounds and advanced proprietary custom materials utilised in a assortment of industry applications. A Convincing Firm Our position as market leader is primarily based on manufacturing high good quality items at competitive prices. Plastics of various polymer structures and resin composition are identified by employing regular codes on the basis of their melting and crushing capacity. The sample preparation and evaluation of these solutions might contain numerous time-consuming processes impacting the release of high-valued goods. Note: Chemical industries in India themselves consume around one particular-third of their production. If calcium phosphate is the major concern, a single of numerous cooling water polymers can be utilized to inhibit scale formation when calcium hardness is in excess of 350 ppm, orthophosphate is over 15 ppm, and at pH levels above 7.five. The most well-known alternatives are sulfonated styrene maleic acid (SSMA), and modified polyacrylates. Shandong IRO Polymer Chemicals Co., Ltd. Moreover, West Virginia is home to a significant number of nonprofit and federal study institutions in materials science and chemical engineering. PFOS and PFOA have chains of eight carbon atoms the group of components associated to PFOA and PFOS is called C8 – this is often referred to as C8 chemistry”. We had been speaking about Paper Sourcing, Chemical compounds Suppliers and Seafood Importer, Presently paper market is at the front position of the sustainability movement, generating fantastic modifications to decrease releases and wastes. The textile sector utilizes vast amounts of water all through all processing operations. NCC is employed to make raw materials for different merchandise including ethylene, recognized as the essential building block for several industries. GreenGuard tests for the emitting chemical compounds coming from a item that indicates it tests only for evaporating chemical compounds, chemical compounds which are a gas at area temperature. A easy instance is polyethylene (‘polythene’ in British English), whose repeating unit is primarily based on ethylene monomer Several other structures do exist for instance, components such as silicon type familiar supplies such as silicones, examples being Silly Putty and waterproof plumbing sealant. Expanding prominence of nylon substitutes such as polypropylene, bioabsorbable polymers, para-aramid synthetic fibers, and polyvinylidene fluoride is anticipated to hamper growth prospects of the marketplace. Both inorganic and organic supplies can be utilized to generate LEDs (light-emitting diodes), such as InGaN (Indium Gallium Nitride) components or cadmium selenide nanocrystals, where the physical approach entails quantum-wells. The Gold level needs goods to include 95 – 100% recycled material Silver calls for 70 – 95% and Bronze consists of a minimum of 30%. When purchasing affordable chemical you also need to make confident that the chemical is of great top quality or else it may possibly have an effect on your merchandise and services. Investigation Beam adds a report titled International Benzyl Bromide Market 2015 Deep Market Investigation Report” that gives detailed info of the Global Benzyl Bromide Market. The U.S. Military, as nicely, is interested in chemical engineers that specialize in polymer engineering, which is the study of the synthesis of distinct chemicals, and process engineering, the study of catalyst improvement and fault detection and handle, as they can function with the military to develop weapons. Meat and dairy goods are as a result a key contributor to this group of human food chain derived toxins, regardless of their containment. Most conducting polymers can be created to transfer electrons to other components such as Buckminsterfullerene(Carbon 60 “C60 Buckyball”) 13. They are in wonderful demand in industries such as petroleum, oil and gas, chemical merchandise, drugs and medicines, aerated drinks, and so forth. Makers and processors introduce various fillers, reinforcements and additives into the base polymers, expanding product possibilities. BULWARK Chemical compounds For Construction Components Supplier In Gujarat, Construction Materials Supplier In India , Building Components Supplier In Ahmedabad, Building Materials In Ahmedabad, Building Supplies In Gujarat, Building Supplies In India.
These goods are becoming utilized for storage in the form of medicine organizers and packaging of medicines and drugs, on account of much better chemical resistance properties. Jobs in Polymer Chemical substances Inc. The Steel and Chemical Processing Industries are two prime examples. Collation shrink packaging films can now be produced employing 30% recycled polyethylene and virgin functionality polyethylene polymers without compromising functionality – helping consumers create sustainable solutions. Quality manage of polymer raw supplies and finished, formulated, items can be accomplished through a wide variety of chemical tests and strategies. Conducting polymers can be employed for optical effects and underlying physical processes. These components have so a lot of varied characteristics and applications that their usefulness can only be measured by our imagination. Globally, India is the 7th biggest producer of chemicals and 3rd biggest (by volume) in Asia. That becoming mentioned, here are the prime six industries that need to have to hire 1 of the best chemical companies in India to boost the productivity of their processes and the quality of their products. Even so, you need to know, chemical businesses in India are accredited to ISO standards to make certain the production of only the standardized specialized sugar chemical substances. Almost all dyes, specialty chemicals and finishing chemical substances are applied to textiles in water baths. Chemically, polysulfides are sulfur-containing liquid polymers. What sets Polymer Valley Chemicals apart is an unwavering commitment to the needs of the consumer. Plastic containers such as milk bottles, soapboxes, and juice and water bottles are recycled on a common basis. The scenario is highly complex considering that some low molecular weight chemicals (e.g., amine accelerators) that are present in the commercial polymer admixtures can also influence the reaction of Portland cement with water. Directories Philippines Corporation (DPC) represents the Yellow Pages (YP) brand—and officially markets YP products and services—in the Philippines. A new compilation of peer reviewed articles, representing more than 60 scientists from about the world, aims to assess the impact of plastics on the atmosphere and human wellness 1 But synthetics do not decompose: in landfills they release heavy metals, such as antimony, and other additives into soil and groundwater. IHS Markit’s Chemical Economics Handbook – PET Polymer has been compiled employing primary interviews with crucial suppliers and organizations, and top representatives from the business in combination with IHS Markit’s unparalleled access to upstream and downstream market intelligence and expert insights into business dynamics, trade, and economics. Repair and restoration activities across the area are attributed to the escalating use of polymer concrete material and are anticipated to drive the development of the polymer concrete market. The addition of dopants (any type of conductive components) increases the polymer conductivity as they generate an accumulation of positive or negative particles, e.g. self-doped polyaniline 13. Investigation Beam adds a report titled Global 4 B Acid Sector 2015 Deep Market Investigation Report” that provides detailed details of the Global four B Acid sector. The standard raw rubber utilized for vulcanizing stamp dies is fairly unacceptable for the production of laser stamp dies, the laser approach requires a really even thickness and blemish free surface to generate an acceptable printed image from a stamp die. Just in case you missed the current report which was published in Occupational and Environmental Medicine 1 , a Canadian study located that females who perform with some widespread synthetic supplies could treble their threat of developing breast cancer after menopause. Using up to 37% recycled HDS film with virgin functionality PE polymers maintains the overall performance of new sacks, whilst tracing and tracking technologies assists make certain top quality. Notwithstanding the lack of theoretical understanding, the prospective of polymers to offer revolutionary, accessible and low-cost supplies was quickly grasped. Block copolymers in which a difficult segment of the polymer has a tendency to crystallize and a soft segment has an amorphous structure are one sort of thermoplastic elastomers: the challenging segments make certain wide-meshed, physical crosslinking. Akzo Nobel Polymer Chemical compounds has not reported lobbying on certain bills.
Polymers are studied in the fields of polymer science (which contains polymer chemistry and polymer physics ), biophysics and materials science and engineering Historically, items arising from the linkage of repeating units by covalent chemical bonds have been the main concentrate of polymer science An emerging essential region now focuses on supramolecular polymers formed by non-covalent links. Bronze regular – products have a minimum of 30 percent recycled content. Our partners & principals are global marketplace leaders in their fields, with their help combined with our market place intel & years of expertise we have produced the best solution to serve our specialist market sectors in the UK & Ireland. Polymers are supplies with a seemingly limitless range of traits and colors. The macroscopic physical properties of a polymer are connected to the interactions between the polymer chains. Silicone is typically a a lot thinner solution than several of the other polymers on the market. When a cleaner starts operating on fabric-related processes, there is a restricted set of options obtainable when it comes to items. Phthalates are EDC’s (Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals.) They are chemicals discovered in recycle codes #1 by means of #6 plastics. Thermax, among the major chemical businesses in India , gives water treatment plans that are primarily based on a thorough assessment of the approach, water chemistry, cooling requirements, and metallurgy of your industrial cooling technique. Whilst these days, we see diverse materials being utilised, some argue that there is significantly less effect on the atmosphere, but they are nevertheless chemicals that kill. Plastic supplies consist of a few dyes, fillers, and additives, which are not effortlessly recyclable. From the final results presented here, it is clear that FD-MS is a really successful analytical technique for determining molecular weights of polymer chemical compounds. Both of these reactions lead to side chains so that the molecules of the polymer cannot pack collectively in a standard way. The worldwide polymer concrete market place is segmented into five regions namely Asia Pacific, North America, Europe, Latin America, and the Middle East and Africa. The GRS gives a track and trace certification system that guarantees that the claims you make about a item can be officially backed up. It consists of a 3-tiered method with the Gold common requiring items to contain between 95 percent to one hundred percent recycled material the Silver normal needs products to be created of amongst 70 percent to 95 % recycled solution and the Bronze normal calls for merchandise to have a minimum of 30 percent recycled content material. Though forbidden in the EU, numerous businesses have production websites or suppliers outside Europe, where the use of NPEO is not forbidden. For technical information and manufacturing plants evaluation, the report analyzes four B Acid top suppliers on capacity, commercial production date, manufacturing plants distribution, R&D status, technologies sources, and raw supplies sources. Grocery sacks and plastic bags are some of the other plastic merchandise that can be recycled. And frequently a solution is advertised as getting an organic fabric” when what they imply is the fabric began out with organic fibers – but the processing, like the organic applesauce mentioned above, results in fabric that includes a higher proportion, by weight, of synthetic chemicals (such as lead or mercury, formaldehyde, chlorine, or phthalates). For example, whilst the polymer is utilized for wiring, generating furniture, clothing, home décor, prosthesis, and electronics, plastic is utilised for PVC piping, water tank creation, and constructing storage containers. The polymer gel industry is witnessing significant demand from industries including personal care and agriculture. This estimated information is cross-checked with business professionals from different major organizations in the market place. Chemical compounds and Polymer Recruitment Solutions Ltd is a trading division of PREA Ltd established more than 25 years ago. International four B Acid Sector 2015 Deep Marketplace Study Report is a professional and deep research report in this field. Ultimately the unit summarises the variety of processing tactics that can be utilized to convert polymers into a vast range of different items. Thermosetting plastics, such as epoxies, phenolics, and silicones, have cross-linked chains. Element’s Engaged Experts have considerable encounter in reviewing polymer chemical resistance for oilfield applications.
Composites are formed by combining polymeric materials to form an all round structure with properties that differ from the sum of the individual elements. Performance polyethylene (PE) polymers are utilised in a number of applications such as packaging, agriculture, developing and building, hygiene and individual care, as nicely as industrial applications. In addressing all the superior attributes of polymers, it is equally crucial to discuss some of the challenges associated with the supplies. These polymers are particularly produced of carbon atoms bonded collectively, one particular to the subsequent, into extended chains that are called the backbone of the polymer. On the basis of the class, the international polymer concrete marketplace is segmented into polymer concrete, polymer modified concrete, polymer impregnated concrete, and other people. The Worldwide Plastic Packaging Market is anticipated to witness the fastest income development in the food and beverages application, registering a CAGR of 4.2% more than the forecast period. Durability and resistance to UV and intense weather situations make MMA an best material for numerous applications in these industries. Over the years, Polymer Valley Chemicals has expanded swiftly to meet the needs of its consumers. Related in chemical structure to specific plastics and acrylic compounds, these are comparatively new, synthetic phosphate substitutes. Therefore, businesses in the housing industry need to have chemical firms that can provide the best high quality products. The International Plastic Packaging Market place size is anticipated to attain USD 269.6 billion by 2025 and will register a CAGR of three.9% for the duration of the forecast period, according to a new report by Grand View Study, Inc. Plasticizers are typically modest molecules that are chemically comparable to the polymer and generate gaps in between polymer chains for greater mobility and decreased interchain interactions. Polymerization is the approach of combining many modest molecules identified as monomers into a covalently bonded chain or network. Countries such as Saudi Arabia, the UK, the US, UAE, and Bangladesh are amongst the major importers of chemical goods such as toiletries, cosmetics, and important oils. For example, to make a item from plastic, one particular should choose which plastic to use from a quite big range of plastics accessible, and then make a decision which processing method is suitable to make the preferred shaped product. Banking on the most current technology and our certified group of specialists, we are involved in offering Polymer Chemical compounds. 15 Their contributions led to the discovery of supplies such as celluloid , galalith , parkesine , rayon , vulcanised rubber and, later, Bakelite : all materials that quickly entered industrial manufacturing processes and reached households as garments elements (e.g., fabrics, buttons), crockery and decorative products. So green merchandise may be specially featured or identified (sometimes as best”) due to the fact the manufacturer has paid for the spotlight. By now, you have to be familiar with monomer and polymers alongside several applications and job opportunities. The processing is environmentally damaging and outcomes in fabric that includes many chemical compounds that seriously jeopardize our health. Thermomplastics consist of individual molecules with no covalent bonding between them but held collectively by intermolecular bonding. Closed loop recycling does happen, but often the most worthwhile use for a recycled plastic is into an application diverse than the original use. The quite high molecular weight (UHMW) of polyethylene mainly outlives all other supplies, which includes metals, nylon, urethane and fluoroplastics. Concentrations of NP and its parent compound NPEO have been measured worldwide in surface waters, sediments, sewage, the atmosphere, aquatic organisms, and even in standard human food items. Specialty Polymers & Chemical compounds (SP&C) was established in 2007 to source and import an substantial range of raw components to the Australian manufacturing industry and has proudly grow to be the one particular quit-shop” supplier to the Australian market place. With International Sourcing,, these chemical organizations can now very easily make contact with chemical, polymer and raw material suppliers and get all the provide they want, with half the hassle they otherwise would have had to face. For technical data and manufacturing plants evaluation, the report analyzes Benzyl Bromide leading suppliers on capacity, commercial production date, manufacturing plants distribution, R&D status, technologies sources, and raw materials sources.